Contents

### CBSE CLASS 8 Maths Study Material

**1. RATIONAL NUMBERS**

**1.1 Definition of Rational Numbers**

**1.3 Decimal Representation of Rational Numbers**

**1.4 Comparison of Rational Numbers**

**1.5 Representation of Rational Numbers on Number Lines**

**1.6 Addition of Rational Numbers**

**1.7 Properties of Addition of Rational Numbers**

**1.8 Subtraction of Rational Numbers**

**1.9 Properties of Subtraction of Rational Numbers**

**1.10 Multiplication of Rational Numbers**

**1.11 Properties of Multiplication of Rational Numbers**

**1.12 Division of Rational Numbers**

**1.13 Properties of Division of Rational Numbers**

**1.14 Finding more than one Rational Number between two Rational Numbers**

**1.15 Rational Number Notes and Sample Questions in PDF Format**

**2. EXPONENTS**

**2.1 Definition of Exponent/Power/Index**

**2.2 Positive Integral Exponent of Rational Number**

**2.3 Negative Integral Exponent of Rational Number**

**2.4 Laws of Exponents**

**2.5 Numbers in Standard Form**

**2.6 Exponents Notes and Sample Questions in PDF Format**

**3. SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS**

**3.1 Perfect Squares or Squares Numbers**

**3.2 Properties of Perfect Squares**

**3.3 Short Cut Method for Finding Squares**

**3.4 Square Root of Perfect Square Numbers By Long Division Method**

**3.5 Square Root of Decimal Numbers**

**3.6 Square Root of Fraction**

**3.7 Some Important Pattern of Square Numbers**

**3.8 Square and Square Roots Notes and Sample Questions in PDF Format**

**4. CUBES AND CUE ROOTS**

**4.1 Perfect Cubes of Cube of a Number**

**4.2 Cube of Positive and Negative Numbers**

**4.3 Properties of Cubes of Number**

**4.4 Short Cut Method for Finding Cubes of Number**

**5. PLAYING WITH NUMBERS**

**5.1 Two and Three Digit Numbers**

**5.2 Test of Divisibility**

**5.3 Replacing Alphabets by a Number**

**6. OPERATION ON ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION**

**6.1 Addition of Algebraic Expression**

**6.2 Subtraction of Algebraic Expression**

**6.3 Multiplication of Algebraic Expression**

**6.4 Division of Algebraic Expression**

**6.5 Algebraic Identities**

**7. FACTORIZATION**

**7.1 Factors and Factorization**

**7.2 Factorization By Taking a Common Monomial Factor from Each Term**

**7.3 Factorization By Taking a Common Binomial Factor from Each Term**

**7.4 Factorization By Grouping**

**7.5 Factorization By Using (a ^{2} – b^{2}) = (a+b)(a-b)**

**7.6 Factorization By Using a ^{2} + b^{2} + 2ab = (a + b)^{2}**

**7.6 Factorization By Using a ^{2} + b^{2} – 2ab = (a – b)^{2}**

**7.7 Factorization of Quadratic Polynomial of the Form (x ^{2} + px + q)**

**7.8 Factorization of Quadratic Polynomial of the Form (ax ^{2} + bx + c)**

**8. LINEAR EQUATION IN ONE VARIABLE**

**8.1 Definition of Linear Equation in One Variable**

**8.2 Rules for Solving a Linear Equation**

**8.3 Application of Linear Equation**

**9. PERCENTAGE**

**9.1 Definition of Percentage**

**9.2 Conversion of Percentage into Fraction**

**9.3 Conversion of Fraction into Percentage**

**9.4 Finding Percentage of a number**

**9.5 Application of Percentage**

**10. PROFIT AND LOSS**

**10.1 Definition of Cost Price, Selling Price, Profit and Loss**

**10.2 Formula based on Profit and Loss**

**10.3 Application of Profit and Loss**

**10.4 Definition of Discount, Marked Price, List Price, Successive Discount**

**10.5 Formula for Discount**

**10.6 Application of Discount**

**11. COMPOUND INTEREST **

**11.1 Definition of Compound Interest (CI)**

**11.2 Finding CI When Interest is Compounded Annually**

**11.3 Finding CI When Interest is Compounded Half-Yearly **

**11.4 Formula for CI When Interest is Compounded Annually**

**11.5 Formula for CI When Interest is Compounded Annually But Rates are Different for Different Years**

**11.6 Formula for CI When Interest is Compounded Annually But Time is in Fraction**

**11.7 Application of Compounded Interest Formula**

**12. DIRECT AND INVERSE PROPORTIONS**

**12.1 Definition of Direct Proportion**

**12.3 Definition of Inverse Proportion**

**13. TIME AND WORK**

**13.1 General Rules for Time and Work**

**13.2 Problems on Time and Work**

**13.3 Problem on Pipes and Cistern**

**14. POLYGON**

**14.1 Definition of Curve, Open Curve, Closed Curve**

**14.2 Definition of Polygon, Concave and Convex, Regular and Irregular Polygon**

**14.3 Formula for Regular Polygon**

**14.4 Formula for Convex Polygon**

**14.5 Number of Diagonals in a Polygon**

**14.6 Definition of Triangle and its types**

**14.7 Definition of Quadrilateral and its types**

**15. QUADRILATERAL**

**15.1 Definition of Quadrilateral and its terminologies**

**15.2 Angle Sum Property in Quadrilateral**

**16. PARALLELOGRAM**

**16.1 Definition of Parallelogram and its properties**

**16.2 Definition of Rhombus and its properties**

**16.3 Definition of Rectangle and its properties**

**16.4 Definition of Square and its properties**

**16.5 Definition of Trapezium and its properties**

**16.6 Definition of Isosceles Trapezium and its properties**

**16.7 Questions and Answers**

**17. AREA OF TRAPEZIUM AND A POLYGON**

**17.1 Formula for Finding Area of Trapezium**

**17.2 Area of Quadrilateral**

**17.3 Area of Irregular Polygon**

**17.4 Area of Regular Polygon**

**18. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIGURES**

**18.1 Definition of 3D Figures, Faces, Vertex, Edge**

**18.2 Definition of Cuboid and its Number of Faces, Vertices, Edges**

**18.3 Definition of Cube and its Number of Faces, Vertices, Edges**

**18.4 Definition of Prism and its Number of Faces, Vertices, Edges**

**18.5 Definition of Pyramid and its Number of Faces, Vertices, Edges**

**18.6 Euler’s Formula for 3D Figures**

**19. VOLUMES AND SURFACE AREA OF SOLIDS**

**19.1 Volume and Surface Area Formula for Cuboid**

**19.2 Volume and Surface Area Formula for Cube**

**19.3 Volume and Surface Area Formula for Right Circular Cylinder**

**19.4 Volume and Surface Area Formula for Right Circular Cone**

**19.1 Volume and Surface Area Formula for Spheres**

**20. DATA HANDLING**

**20.1 Definition of Data, Raw Data, Range, Statistics**

**20.2 Frequency Distribution and Tally Mark**

**20.3 Grouping of Data**

**21. CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETING BAR GRAPH**

**21.1 Definition of Bar Graph**

**21.2 Steps to Draw Bar Graph**

**22. PIE CHART**

**22.1 Definition Pie Chart**

**22.2 Central Angle Formula for Component in Pie Chart**

**22.3 Steps to create Pie Chart**

**23. PROBABILITY**

**23.1 Definition of Probability and its terminologies**

**23.2 Some Experiments and Their Outcomes**

**23.3 Introduction of Playing Cards**

**23.3 Formula for Finding Probability**

**24. GRAPHS**

**24.1 Introduction of Graphs and its terminologies **

### CBSE CLASS 8 Maths Sample Questions With Answer

### CBSE CLASS 8 NCERT Books PDF